Prospective research regarding rapid prototyping processes for applications in the field of micro- and nanosystems realization




International patents / patent applications


The invention refers to a procedure for 2D and 3D optically assisted fountain pen and aperture pen nanolithography that is used for allowing realization of nanometric scale patterns that have a better edge accuracy and possess a better resolution than normal fountain pen and aperture pen nanolithography. It deposits an ink onto a substrate through a perforated tip cantilever. The cantilever has a channel inside it and is fed with ink by a microfluidic chip. The deposition of ink is made under illumination with light, light that has the role of either photopolymerize the ink when ink (1) is a photopolymerizable monomer or to accelerate the evaporation of the solvent that enters into composition of ink.


The invention refers to a process for rapid manufacturing that uses a focused ultrasound beam. The process is based on the local ultrasound welding of the material grains – material that is under a powder form –welding that takes place solely in the focal spot of the focused ultrasound beam, the focal spot being scanned across the X-Y-Z directions within the powder bed so as to 3D build the entire object that is desired. The processes taking place in the focal spot region are local melting, local melting due to friction followed by filling of the gaps existing between grains, removal of the grain asperities, local inter-diffusion between neighboring grains as well as other phenomena that take place at the interfaces between materials when these are subjected to an ultrasound field.

National patents / patent applications

  • G. Moagăr-Poladian – Method for 3D building of Silicon and Germanium based micro and nanostructures OSIM A00947 / 2012

The invention refers to a method of 3D building of Si-based and Ge-based nanostructures by using Rapid Prototyping techniques. The method allows the realziation of 3D structures that can be made by either Silicon or Germanium or SiGe alloys, structures that can be homogeneous or may contain at least a pn junction. The structures can be amorphous, polycrystalline or monocrystalline.

  • D. Vârşescu – Vibration insulator with low resonance frequency  OSIM A00398 / 2014 

The invention considers a low frequency vibrations damper consisting in a positive spring placed in parallel with a negative spring. By positive spring we understand a spring having a positive slope of the force-displavcement curve while the negative spring ahs a negative slope of the same curve. The two springs compensate each other so that the overall resonance ferquency of the damper/attenuator is lowered significantly.

  • G. Moagăr-Poladian – “Multi-role chip for advanced 2D and 3D nanolithography systems”, A-00046 / 22.01.2015

Description: It is a chip that allows: a ) multi-functionality for advanced nanolithography and characterization at the nanoscale; b) a simplified operation of the system and control from a single computer; c) the ability to determine in-situ, immediately after the nanolithography task, the nanostructure that was fabricated and its extensive characterization; d) fast and easy alignment between different nanolithography operations, between different nanoscale characterization operations and, respectively, between the nanolithography operation and the nanoscale characterization one. Such a chip it is useful at least at the laboratory level for the fabrication and characterization of various 2D and 3D nanostructure prototypes.

Articles published / sent to publication
            1) M. Bulinski, G. Moagăr-Poladian - FOURIER-TRANSFORM INTERFERENCE LITHOGRAPHY
Journal: sent to Romanian Journal of Physics

Today, the realization of micro- and nanostructures by using low-cost and rapid methods has attracted a lot of attention and research, since the applications of such reduced scale structures are very important, aiding diverse disciplines from engineering to materials to medicine and biology, as well as security. Fulfilling the cost and time requirements have proven to be the advantage of light based solutions, since light may realize many structures in parallel. While usual optical lithography techniques have reached maturity and have proven ability to go to feature dimensions as low as 32 nm the complexity and costs associated with such elaborated optical lithography techniques make them not affordable for many users interested to produce and apply nanostructures. For the case of periodic structures, interference lithography (IL) has proven a useful, low-cost and easy-to-implement technique for various applications. The main limitation of IL is that it can produce only periodic structures. One such development is that of [S. Pau, G. P. Watson, O. Nalamasu, J. Mod. Optics, Vol. 48, p.1211, (2001)] who have proven the possibility to realize non-periodic patterns by interference lithography, which is used by us to analyze its practical applicability and its limitations. Recent scientific and technological developments require special lithography techniques for the manufacturing of complex “greyscale” structures: photonic band gap crystals; micro and nano electro-mechanical systems; diffractive and refractive micro-optics (array of a-spherical lenses; etc. Multi-level or greyscale lithography is relatively underutilized today, and the most important reason is the difficulty to obtain a real a greyscale exposure [McKenna, C., Walsh, K., Crain, M., Lake, J., Micro/Nano Symposium (UGIM), 2010 18th Biennial University / Government / Industry]. This limitation of traditional techniques is one of the strengths of the method presented in this article. tarting from the concept of interference lithography, developed several years ago, which is currently used in fabrication of 2D and 3D simple shapes periodical structures in so called holographic lithography, or laser lithography, we analyze in this paper the possibility of practical application of the concept for the realization of non-periodic patterns into a commercial photoresist.

1) Gold Medal and Chamber of Commerce of Vâlcea County Prize for the invention:
G. Moagăr-Poladian – RAPID MANUFACTURING PROCESS BY USING A FOCUSED ULTRASOUND BEAM PCT/RO2014/000029, at the Expo Inventika 2014 – Romanian Research Exhibition 2014

2) Gold Medal and the Prize of the Bosnia-Herţegovina, Serbia, Muntenegru, Kosovo and Macedonia delegation for the invention:
G. Moagăr-Poladian – Procedure of 2D and 3D optically assisted fountain pen nanolithography and aperture pen nanolithography, at the Innova / Eureka 2013 Innovation Fair, Bruxelles, Belgium 2013

Dissemination and training activities

  1. G. Moagăr-Poladian, V. Moagăr-Poladian – Invited by Prof. Dr. Cristian Doicin from Faculty of Engineering and Management of Technpllogical Systems IMST-UPB from Politehnica University Bucharest (UPB) to present methods of 3D Printing based on light and, respectively, specific problematics of the applications of 3D Printing in the field of auxetic materials. This invitation was made under the auspices of the POSDRU EU Structural Funds project coordinated by UPB. 
  2. An invited lecture given at the “Innovative Additive Fabrication Technologies – Start building the future in 3D”, presented at Politehnica University of Bucharest on 18.10.2012 under the frame of the POLIFEST (17.10.2012 – 19.10.2012) event.
    G. Moagăr-Poladian – Light-based Rapid Prototyping Technologies
    The (in Romanian) presentation is available for download here.
  3. Several lecture notes given by team experts to the Optoelectronics MSc students from the Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Electronics, Department of Electronics Technology, Optoelectronics and Reliability.


  • Light-based Rapid Prototyping Technologies - G. Moagăr-Poladian
  • CAD modelling for simulation in ANSYS and additive manufacturing purposes – V. Moagăr-Poladian
  • Simulation using CoventorWare – C. Tibeică
  • A lecture note given by to the Optoelectronics MSc students from the Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Electronics, Department of Electronics Technology, Optoelectronics and Reliability:
                - G. Moagăr-Poladian – “Light-based Additive Manufacturing”
  • A lecture note presented under the frame of the POSDRU project POSDRU/161/2.1/G/135812, titlul “Sprijin pentru o carieră de succes în domeniul electronicii aplicate în medicină, automatizări şi nanotehnologii”, Manager Proiect was Prof. dr. Sever-Viorel Pasca from Polytehnical University of Bucureşti, Faculty of Electronics, Communications and Information Technology, http://elaman.upb.ro/. Project partners: National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology IMT-Bucharest and the company INSOFT Development & Consulting (INSOFT).
    - Gabriel Moagăr-Poladian - “3D Printing methods at micro- and nanoscale – introductory lecture” .

Present research directions

  • 3D Printing at nanoscale by Laser Assisted CVD (LACVD). Starting from the LACVD concept presented in the literature we are considering ways to go to nanoscale structuring (~ 40 nm resolution) and with possibility to industrial scale applicability. Final aim: to develop the basic hardware unit that allows the application of LACVD to that resolution scale. Under study.
  • X-ray lithography method using ultra-fast X-ray modulators. It is a direct write X-Ray lithography technique aimed for creating microstructures with high aspect ratio (heigth-to-width ratio) with possibility to go to sub-micrometer resolution. Application to LIGA technique is envisaged. Perspectives to reach sub-100 nm are also considered. Under study.
  • Nanoparticle-polymer composites for applications in sensing for nanotechnology purposes. Under study.

Conceive of a new 3D nanoscale fabrication method:

  1. Preliminary experiments were done regarding the use of traditional, standard microsystem technology.
  2. We have devised a modified EFAB-like process that allows the fabrication of 3D structures based on dielectric and semiconducting materials. We devised another version specially devoted for Silicon and Germanium.
  3. Another technique devised was based on 3D self-assembly

Participation in a H2020 – ECSEL project
The IMT team of the IDEI project is involved in an H2020 – ECSEL project as a partner, the project being devoted to electric cars. One of the research themes for IMT emerged from the present IDEI project and is related to the design and fabrication of special encapsulation structures by using 3D Printing techniques.

Details about the H2020 – ECSEL project are:
Title: Integrated Components for Complexity Control in affordable electrified cars
Acronym: 3Ccar
Coordinator: Infineon Technologies AG (Germania)
IMT responsibilities: coordinator of a task in WP2, responsible for 2 deliverables.
1 Infineon Technologies AG IFAG Germany (coordinator)
3 AVL Software and Functions GMBH AVL SFR Germany
4 Vysoke uceni technicke v Brne BUT Czech Republic
5 Daimler AG Germany
6 Fraunhofer gesellschaft zur forderung der angewandten forschung EV Fraunhofer Germany
7 Infineon technologies Austria AG IFAT Austria
8 Infineon Technologies Romania and CO. Societate în Comandită Simplă Romania
9 ON Semiconductor Belgium BVBA ON BELGIUM Belgium
10 Qinetiq Limited QINETIQ United Kingdom
11 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft SIEMENS Germany
12 Technische Universitaet DRESDEN TUD Germany
13 Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule AMBERG-WEIDEN OTH-AW Germany
14 Valeo equipements electriques moteur sas Valeo EEM France
15 Institut MIkroelektronickych Aplikaci S.R.O. IMA Czech Republic
16 Institutul Naţional de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Microtehnologie IMT Romania
17 STMicroelectronics (ALPS) SAS STMicro France
18 Tenneco AutomotivE Europe Belgium
19 NXP Semiconductors BV Netherlands
20 Valeo Systemes de Controle Moteur SAS VSCM France
21 Technische Universiteit EINDHOVEN TU/e Netherlands
22 TTTECH Computertechnik AG Austria
23 Elektronikas un Datorzinatnu Instituts EDI Latvia
24 Teknologian tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy VTT Finland
25 Murata Electronics Oy Finland
26 Okmetic OYJ Okmetic Finland
27 Offis EV Germany
28 Kompetenzzentrum - Das Virtuelle Fahrzeug, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH VIF Austria
29 Nederlandse organisatie voor toegepast natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek TNO Netherlands
30 Lange Research Aircraft GMBH Germany
31 Fundacion Tecnalia Research & Innovation TECNALIA Spain
32 Advanced Automotive Antennas S.L A3 Spain
33 Fico-Triad SA TRIAD Spain
34 Ixion Industry and Aerospace SL IXION Spain
35 Ideas & Motion SRL Italy
36 Torino E-District Consorzio TOED Italy
37 Vilniaus Gedimino Technikos Universitetas VGTU Lithuania
38 UAB Metis Baltic MB Lithuania
39 Solbian Energie Alternative SRL SOLBIAN Italy
40 Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche CNR Italy
41 Technische Universitaet Graz TU GRAZ Austria
42 Interactive Fully Electrical Vehicles SRL IFEVS Italy
43 Universita di Pisa UNIPI Italy
44 Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique et aux ENergies Alternatives CEA France
45 Industrial Technology Research Institute Incorporated ITRI Taiwan
46 ON Design Czech s.r.o. Czech Republic
47 Hutchinson SA HUTCH France
48 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft BMW Germany
49 Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT VTT Finland
50 Cosynth GMBH & CO. KG COSYNTH Germany
51 NXP Semiconductors Germany GMBH NXP Germany